Nippon Steel is on!General situation of carbon dioxide capture and utilization in steel works and analysis of development examples

2022-05-09 0 By

Nippon Steel is on!To achieve the goal of zero carbon steel in the steel industry, it is necessary to carry out fundamental technological development, rather than the extension of the development of energy-saving technology developed by predecessors.The technology of reducing blast furnace emissions is effective in THE bF-bOF system of Japan Steel.This is because the reduction of iron ore from coke in blast furnaces inevitably produces CO2.In the future, Nippon Steel will develop and replace carbon-free iron smelting (hydrogen reduction iron smelting) that reduces CO2 emissions to zero through hydrogen reduction iron ore.However, considering that there is still a long way to go to establish hydrogen reduction iron-making technology and cheap and large amount of co2-free hydrogen supply system, it is expected that the blast furnace will still be co-produced at present.In this case, it is critical to promote CO2 reduction through the development and utilization of COURSE50 technology in the blast furnace process, and to realize the valency and immobilization of CO2 through CO2 capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) (Figure 1).This paper will focus on the capture and utilization of carbon dioxide (CCU), and introduce various research and development based on the catalyst technology of Japan Iron, through joint research with industry, government and science.A new synthesis technology using CO2 manufacturing polycarbonate intermediate in new energy industrial technology development organization (NEDO) of cutting-edge research projects, the Japanese company in fiscal year 2020, with Northeastern University in Japan, mitsubishi gas chemical and was engineering implementation “using CO2 manufacturing polycarbonate (hereinafter referred to as PC) in the middle of the raw material of the new synthesis technology”.The technology was developed based on a joint research with Tohoku University Professor Keiichi Tomizhige on the synthesis of carbonates from CO2 and ethanol.Normally, carbonates are made from ethanol and a highly toxic compound called phosgene, and the idea of green chemistry is to replace the phosgene with CO2 and react in the presence of a catalyst.However, under the condition that the reaction could not be carried out only by optimizing the catalyst, the researchers proposed the idea of co-existing dehydrating agent in the system, so that the water generated at the same time with carbonate was hydrated with the dehydrating agent and removed from the system, so as to balance transfer to the formation system, and found that the reaction was very efficient.From a practical point of view, since the market for equivalent by-products from such hydration reactions is small, researchers are addressing this by developing regenerative processes to reduce them to dehydrants.In addition, in a series of studies, the catalyst structure was also developed to fix the catalyst powder in stainless steel honeycomb, the structure does not powder during the reaction process, has good thermal conductivity and mass diffusion performance.The carbonate produced here can itself be used as a solvent in lithium batteries and as an intermediate material in polycarbonate (PC), a general-purpose engineering plastic.As of FY2019, PC-manufacturing operator Mitsubishi Gas Chemical and Nippon Steel Engineering, which designed the reactor, have conducted laboratory tests that confirm that PCS manufactured based on the process have physical properties comparable to products manufactured using the phosgene method.In the NEDO project, the researchers used trial and calculation (LCA) to investigate whether the developed process consumed less energy during production than other PC manufacturing processes (Figure 4).Based on the results, the company plans to study social implementation in pilot plants using CO2 from fixed emission sources and push for practical application.Two new gas-liquid catalyst technology from CO2 in the future social creation project of Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) in the field of “Global Topic — Realization of low-carbon Society” through “game-changing technology” to achieve low-carbon society, Nippon Steel from fiscal year 2017-2021,A new gas-liquid catalyst technology derived from carbon dioxide was implemented with Toyama University.This technology development is a process development using GTL conversion technology to convert CO2 and H2 into catalysts for the manufacture of various chemical products (Figure 5).In the past, the initial feedstock in this diagram was the same technology development (C1 chemistry) using CO+H2 synthetic gas. Now, the CO in the feedstock is converted to CO2, and everything else is the same.However, since the raw material is CO2, the technical barriers become very high.In particular, measures to prevent degradation of catalytic performance due to large amounts of byproduct water, such as the high catalytic activity required for conversion of inert feedstocks, need to be strengthened, and unprecedented innovative catalyst design concepts and processes need to be developed.In this case, in the JST project, Japan steel with the university of toyama tsubaki Fan Li professor joint research cooperation, with the world’s leading reaction efficiency and product yield, direct synthesis from CO2 aromatics (especially for xylene), methanol, kerosene and olefin, from the perspective of catalyst and process research, at present has achieved remarkable results.The object of research and development is the products of basic raw materials of chemical products and fuel products. If the global demand for all products is replaced by CO2 raw materials, it is estimated that the fixed amount of CO2 will be very large, which is a great contribution to the state-led carbon recovery technology.In the future, based on the results of this project, the company will cooperate with chemical and energy companies to improve the technical accuracy of test equipment and promote the social implementation of pilot equipment.In terms of NEDO carbon recovery and new generation of thermal power generation technology development, CO2 emission reduction and effective utilization of practical technology development, chemical products CO2 utilization technology development, Nippon Steel from 2020-2023 fiscal year,Cooperated with Toyama University, Mitsubishi corporation, Chiyoda Chemical Construction, High Chemical Corporation and Nippon Steel Engineering to implement “technology development of producing paraxylene with CO2 as raw material”.The objective of this NEDO project is to validate in a pilot facility the direct synthesis of aromatics (paraxylene) from CO2 already developed in the JST project in Section 2.2.As shown in Figure 6, this direct synthesis technique developed a mixture of Cr2O3 with the ability to convert CO2 and H2 to methanol, and zeolite (H-ZSM-5) with the ability to convert methanol to paraxylene. By developing and bringing them close to each other, paraxylene can be produced directly from CO2 with high efficiency.Traditionally, p-xylene is produced by catalytic reforming of crude oil and processed into polyester fiber and PET bottle resin through high purity terephthalic acid (PTA). It is an extremely important basic chemical product in industry.Due to the small hydrogen/carbon ratio (H/C) in the product, the carbon recovery technology in the manufacturing of chemical products can not only inhibit the use of hydrogen raw materials, but also can fix CO2, which is considered to have great potential from the perspective of economy and environmental protection.The annual global demand for xylene is about 49 million tons. If the current global demand for xylene is replaced with CO2 raw material, the fixed amount of CO2 per year is expected to reach 160 million tons.In this project, research agencies will cooperate together, share information, in order to use CO2 production of xylene, in the landmark catalyst improvement and production technology development and technology development at the same time, also studied the overall economy and CO2 emission reduction effect of commercial, aimed at creating a path to the empirical stage of the route (figure 7).In NEDO’s unprecedented challenge 2050 to achieve net zero emission (NZE) CO2 efficient utilization technology, Nippon Steel from fiscal year 2018-2022,”Development of solid catalyst Process for the polymerization of CARBON dioxide and diol” (Figure 8) was carried out jointly with Osaka City University and Tohoku University.The objective of this research is to immobilize carbon dioxide through the development of an efficient solid catalyst process for constructing the direct synthesis of polycarbonate diol from carbon dioxide and diol.The starting point of this study is the carbonate synthesis technology from CO2 and ethanol described in Section 2.1, but the biggest feature of this study is the high efficiency of the reaction without the introduction of dehydrating agents into the system.The polycarbonate diol synthesized here is the raw material for polyurethane, an engineering plastic that is an essential industrial chemical and is expected to increase CO2 fixation in line with global demand.In addition, by combining the diol synthesis technology of biomass, diol can be converted from petrochemical feedstock to biomass, which is expected to further sequester and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.In this study, in addition to improving reaction efficiency through experimental inspection, LCA was also advanced by comparing the whole process with other processes.In the future, after the achievement of this project, we hope to work with polyurethane operators to improve the technical accuracy of the test equipment and promote the social implementation of the pilot equipment.This article is part of the content. 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